Юридические документы о лизинге.
Проект документов о лизинге учрежден 01-10-1999 ; редакция от 01-11-2001.
Международная лизинговая энциклопедия.
The International Leasing Encyclopedia by Steven Gilyeart.
Энциклопедии не было в интернет последние полтора года, но это не означает, что ее нет вообще. я взял на себя смелость разместить на этом сайте всю подборку статей (собственно энциклопедию), с указанием адресов электронных почт авторов материалов и редактора. Материал на английском языке.
Export Credit Insurance: An Effective Marketing and Financing Tool by Gary Mendell, Meridian Finance Group
Cash in advance and letters of credit are not longer competitive terms in the international marketplace. Buyers in Western Europe and the Pacific Rim, accustomed to purchasing on open account credit terms from their suppliers, may expect the same consideration from your company. Customers in the emerging markets of Asia, Latin American, Africa, and other regions may be facing scarce capital and high interest rates, making it difficult or impossible to order your products without credit terms. When your export business requires you to extend credit overseas, you can protect your company's riskiest asset--foreign receivables--against nonpayment losses with an export credit insurance policy. Export credit insurance is an effective marketing and financing tool that can help you close more sales, increase order quantities, negotiate larger contracts, and penetrate new markets. Export credit insurance also enhances your borrowing capacity by making it possible to include foreign receivables in your collateral base. While ostensibly designed to mitigate nonpayment and other foreign credit risks, the primary benefit of export credit insurance is that it enables you to use competitive credit terms to increase both your international sales and the profitability derived from these revenues: Increase order quantities by enabling overseas customers to economically stock more of your products; transfer inventory carrying costs to foreign distributors; make larger production runs which reduce the impact of manufacturing setup costs; take advantage of quantity discounts when purchasing materials or finished goods from your suppliers; Negotiate overseas distribution agreements with larger stocking requirements by offering terms to new distributors; motivate existing distributors to keep more of your products on the shelf for increased visibility and availability in their local markets; Open new markets which your company might otherwise perceive as too risky for extending credit terms; take advantage of the opportunities to penetrate and establish market share in the world's biggest emerging economies. In addition to supporting the expansion of your international sales, export credit insurance enables you to obtain more favorable financing by including your insured foreign receivables in your borrowing base. You can assign the rights to any claim payments by naming your bank or other lender as the loss payee under your policy. Comprehensive credit insurance protects against political and commercial risks which can cause defaults. Commercial risks are defined as buyer insolvency or protracted nonpayment of your invoices. These problems could occur for many reasons, such as fluctuation in demand, natural disasters, or general economic conditions in your customer's country. Political risks include war, civil strife, and revolution, as well as currency inconvertibility, expropriation, and changes in import or export regulations. Your entire portfolio of foreign receivables can be covered under one multiple-buyer policy, or single-buyer coverage can be used for sales to an individual customer. Generally speaking, the broader the spread of risk, the lower the cost of insurance. Premiums are based on the terms you extend, the spread of buyer and country risks, and your previous experience. The cost is low, in most cases even less than the fees charged to confirm letters of credit. Whether or not you pass this incremental expense on to your customers, the price of the coverage is insignificant compared to the value of penetrating new markets and holding onto market share. Coverage of export sales on terms of 30 to 180 days, or up to one year for durable goods, is considered short-term credit insurance. All types of exports--including raw materials, spare parts, industrial machinery, consumer products, service contracts, etc.--are eligible for short-term coverage. Under medium-term policies, you or your bank can extend financing for one to five years to foreign buyers of capital equipment, turnkey projects, and other large ticket exports. In addition to their standard coverages, most policies include endorsements for special coverages such as non-acceptance insurance, which protects against a buyer's failure to take delivery of your products. Pre-shipment insurance is available for custom manufactured goods or items with long factory lead times. Consignment sales, shipments from a foreign warehouse, and distributor floor plans can be structured as insurable transactions. If your company has a background in foreign credit sales, your policy will enable you to extend terms to most foreign buyers based on your internal credit analysis. While eligible for the same coverages, less-experienced exporters can apply for individual approval of each customer's credit limit prior to extending terms. Following the failure of a covered foreign buyer to pay its credit obligation to your company, for virtually any reason, you can file an insurance claim and payment will be pursued through international channels. Properly documented claims will be paid within the period of time specified in your policy, even if the recovery effort is still in process. Export credit insurance policies are available from government agencies and private sector insurance carriers. Coverage can be designed to meet the requirements of both experienced exports and companies new to international sales. A specialized credit insurance broker can custom-design your export credit insurance program and keep it up-to-date as your export business grows. Used extensively by companies in other countries, export credit insurance is an essential competitive vehicle for US exporters. When cash in advance and letters of credit are not feasible or desirable, your company can extend competitive credit terms overseas--and be confident of payment--with export credit insurance.
Posted 2 April 1999
Ссылка на список документов, имеющих непосредственное отношение к лизингу, находится на главной странице этого раздела сайта.